Some tips for propagation:
1 Wet seed raising mix first, this allows even spreading of seed if necessary.
2 Soak each sown tray with fungicide at time of sowing to eliminate damping off etc. in seedlings
3 If having trouble with some Allocasuarinas and casuarinas use of vam inoculum (vesicular-arbuscular mycoprhiza) proved very successful.
4 Fertilise weekly with liquid fertiliser at half strength, 10 litre watering can to 10 trays holding 96 forestry tubes. Exceptions; Casuarinas, Banksias, Grevilleas and Acacias.
5 Always use super tubes for large fast growing trees e.g. Eucalypts, Brachychiton, Lophostemon etc.
6 Sugar syrup 1 tablespoon per litre.

Further reading:
  • Seed Collection of Australuian Native Plants - Murray Ralph
  • Growing Australian Native Plants from Seed Murray Ralph
  • Australian Native Plants - John W. Wrigley & Murray Fagg


    Botanical and Common Name Flowering Season Seed Collection Propagation Tips
    Acacia spp Spring/Summer Remove pods from tree when some begin to split open. This indicates that they are mature. Remove seeds from pods and use hot water treatment. Pour hot water just off the boil over seeds and allow to soak at least for 15 minutes. Spread seeds out and allow to dry. Sow immediately in trays left in the open. If you have poor results with seedlings use Nutri-life VAM-TECH, a Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi.
    Ackama paniculata
    Rose-leaved Marara
    Late spring, early summer Collect when seeds have formed but not released. Remove seed from capsules by rubbing between two sieves; sow but don't cover seeds
    Acemna smithii Lilly Pilly Winter As for Syzygium spp.
    Acronychia oblongifolia
    White Lily Pilly
    Winter Ripe when fruit white Allow fruit to decompose in sugar syrup mixture. Remove seeds from pulp and sow. Good results in one month.
    Alectryon coriaceus
    Beach Alectryon, Beach Birds-eye
    March / April Remove from tree when fruit is black with red aril showing Soak seed with aril attached overnight . Drain and sow.
    Allocasuarina torulosa
    Forest Oak
    Anytime of year Seed is ripe when cone turns from greyish green to red/brown. Place cones in a paper bag and allow to dry. Cones will open to release seeds. Sow.
    Alocasia brisbanensis Cunjevoi Lily Late summer Wait until spathe opens to show clusters of red berries. Sown with flesh still on gives good results
    Alphitonia excelsa
    Red Ash
    December / January Ripe when some drupes have naturally opened to expose red seed. Best results obtained from young trees Remove powdery coating by rubbing between sieves. Place seeds in a metal container and leave in full sun. Red seeds will pop out, this will continue over a couple of days. Use hot water treatment once only as seeds do not swell.
    Alpinia spp.
    Native Ginger
    April / May Ripe when outer shell turns blue Clean sticky cobweb type material to separate seeds. Good results by soaking seeds for three days changing water daily.
    Anopterus macleayanus
    Macleay Laurel
    Late autumn, early winter Seed ripe when capsule is brown. Sow densely and cover lightly with sand. Good drainage is essential.
    Archirhodomyrtus beckleri
    Rose Myrtle
    Summer Seed is ripe when flesh is red Remove flesh from seed and sow. Germinates readily in one month.
    Archontophoenix cunninghamiana
    Bangalow Palm
    Summer Seed is ripe when red and falling from palm Soak for three days changing water daily and direct sow into pots as they do not like being transplanted.
    Argyrodendron actinophyllun Black Booyong Winter/Spring Seed is ripe when it falls from tree Soak to kill insect larvae then sow.
    Arytera divarticata
    Coogera
    Spring Seed is ripe when red in colour Remove fruit from capsule and sow.
    Banksia integrifolia
    Coast Banksia
    Summer Ripe when cones turn chocolate brown and follicles start to open. Remove seed from follicle by leaving in the sun. Discard papery packing material and insect damaged seeds. Sow and cover with sand. Good results by leaving in the open, germination in 1 2 weeks.
    Brachychiton acerifolius
    Illawarra Flame Tree
    Autumn Seed is ripe when follicles are hard and leathery and black or brown. Remove seed from follicle using gloves as hairs can cause skin irritation. Use hot water treatment and soak overnight. Sow seeds directly into pots.
    Brachychiton discolor
    Lacebark Tree
    Autumn Seed is ripe when follicles are hard and leathery and black or brown. Remove seed from follicle using gloves as hairs can cause skin irritation. Use hot water treatment and soak overnight. Sow seeds directly into pots.
    Callicoma serratifolia
    Black Wattle
    Summer Seed is ripe when it is easily removed from the capsule Remove seed from fruit by rubbing between 2 sieves and sow, do not cover seed.
    Callistemon spp.
    Bottlebrush
    All year Collect woody capsules that have been on the tree from last season. Place capsules in a paper bag to allow seeds to release. Sow finely using very fine covering or none.
    Canavalia rosea
    Coastal Jack Bean
    Autumn / winter As per Acacia
    Carex spp. December / January Seed is ripe when it is easy to remove from the seed head. Place in a paper bag for seeds to release. Sow and cover lightly, keep well watered.
    Casuarina spp. All year As per Allocasuarina
    Ceratopetalum gummiferum
    Christmas Bush
    Summer The flower heads are ripe when red and papery Seed sown in dry flower heads. The flowers are placed stalk end down. Germinates readily.
    Celtis paniculata
    Native Celtis
    Spring/Summer Fruit is ripe when black Sow fresh with flesh on.
    Cinnamomum oliveri
    Oliver's Sassafras
    January Fruit is ripe when soft and will ripen if branches placed in buckets of water Remove flesh from seed before sowing
    Clerodendrum tomentosum
    Hairy clerodendrum
    December/January Fruit is ripe when turning purple, fruit ripens differentially Sow with no treatment for good results in 2 weeks
    Commersonia fraseri
    Brush Kurrajong
    Summer Fruit is ripe when pods start to open, collect and allow to dry and seeds will fall out Sow with hot water treatment allowing seeds to dry out before sowing and leave in the open.
    Cordyline stricta
    Palm Lily
    Autumn Fruit is ripe when berries turn black Remove flesh from seeds then sow. Cuttings are easy.
    Corymbia spp. Most of the year Fruits are woody capsules and are grey/brown when ripe Place seeds in a paper bag to allow them to release. The seeds are very fine and require no covering to germinate. Soak overnight in water if you have any difficulty
    Crinum pedunculatum
    Swamp Lily
    Autumn / winter Fruit is a capsule containing seeds; ripe when changing from green to whitish grey. Direct sow into pots
    Cryptocarya spp. Summer for obovata and rigida. Spring for glaucescens Fruit is ripe when it is black Remove flesh from seed of obovata and rigida by soaking in sugar syrup for three days. For glaucescens just sow without treatment. Germination is slow but good.
    Cupaniopsis anacardioides
    Tuckeroo
    Summer Ripe when some fruits open to show black seed with red aril. Remove seed with aril from fruit capsule and soak overnight to kill caterpillar larvae. Sow direct into pots. Good germination.
    Dianella spp.

    Flax Lily
    December Fruit is ripe when blue. Pulp fruit and sow; cover lightly. Germinates in three weeks
    Diospyros australis
    Black Plum
    Summer Fruit is ripe when black and soft Remove flesh and sow fresh. Good result
    Diploglottis Australis
    Native Tamarind
    November Fruit is ripe when yellow/amber colour and is tasty. Sow fruit whole. Good result.
    Dodonaea triquetra
    Hop Bush
    Summer Fruit is a papery capsule that turns from green to brown and brittle when ripe. Remove seed from capsules by rubbing between two sieves; then as per Acacia
    Dysoxylum fraserianum
    Rosewood
    Summer Fruit is ripe when capsule opens and allows seed to be removed. Fruit ripens differentially, usually up to eight weeks. Remove from capsule and soak overnight, then sow. Have had good results with fruit collected slightly unripe, i.e. Before capsule opens. Good results.
    Dysoxylum rufum
    Hairy Rosewood
    May to September Fruit is ripe when capsule opens and allows seed to be removed. Take care when handling capsules as they are covered with irritating hairs. Fruit ripens differentially, usually up to eight weeks. Remove from capsule and soak overnight, then sow. Have had good results with fruit collected slightly unripe, i.e. Before capsule opens. Good results.
    Ehretia acuminate
    Koda
    Summer Fruit is ripe when yellow. Good results obtained by allowing fruit to decompose in plastic bag in the sun.
    Elaeodendron australe
    Red Olive Plum
    Summer Fruit is ripe when red. These are slow to germinate but for best results allow flesh to decompose for a few months then sow. Good results in a few weeks
    Endiandra sieberi
    Hard corkwood
    Autumn/winter Fruit is ripe when purplish black Remove flesh from seed and sow
    Eupomatia laurina Winter Fruit is ripe when capsule is soft. Remove seeds from capsule, sieve to remove pulp from seeds, soak overnight and sow. Germination is in a few weeks
    Eucalyptus spp. Most of the year As per Corymbia
    Ficus spp.

    Fig
    Most of the year Seed is ripe when fruit is soft. Pulp fruit through sieve and spread collected seeds over wet seed raising mix. Do not cover these tiny seeds.
    Flindersia schottiana
    Cudgerie
    Summer Capsules begin to open Remove from capsule and sow
    Gahnia clarkei

    Saw Sedge
    Late summer / autumn Fruits are a hard red/orange nut at maturity. Extract seed and sow. 3 9 months for germination
    Glochidion ferdinandi
    Cheese Tree
    Summer Fruit is small cheese or pumpkin like capsule seed is ripe when bright red. Remove seed from capsule, soak overnight and sow immediately.
    Gmelina leichhardtii
    White Beech
    March / April Fruit is ripe when blue and soft. Sow fresh, long germination
    Guioa semiglauca
    Wild Quince
    Summer Fruit has three lobes and are ripe when they split to expose an orange fleshed seed. Collect branches showing some ripe seeds and place in water, these fruit will ripen differentially Remove orange fleshed seed from lobes and soak overnight, then sow immediately.
    Hardenbergia violacea
    False Sarsaparilla
    November Fruits are flattened pods that turn dark brown and rattle when ripe. As for Acacia
    Hibbertia scandens
    Climbing Guinea Flower
    Summer Seed are ripe when the orange flesh around the seed is visible. Remove flesh by pulping seeds and sow immediately, good results using bottom heat. Also grown from cuttings
    Hibiscus spp. Spring & autumn Fruit is ripe when capsule starts to open Cuttings are easiest, but I find having a tray of seeds of each species supplements the cuttings
    Hibiscus tiliaceus
    Cottonwood
    Autumn Seeds are in capsules that become brown and split open at maturity. Remove seeds and use hot water treatment. Also by cutting taken in March best results
    Hymenosporum flavum
    Native Frangipani
    Summer Fruits are a capsule 3cm long that split open when ripe. Hold seed and sow in autumn for best results.
    Isolepsis nodosa
    Knobby Club Rush
    Spring / summer Fruits are ripe when the seeds are easily removed from the seed heads. Place seed heads in a paper bag to release seed or sieve seed heads. Do not cover seeds, keep moist.
    Jagera pseudorhus
    Foambark
    Spring Fruit is a three lobed capsule that splits open showing a black seed in yellow aril. Take care when collecting and handling as the hairs on the capsules are irritating. Remove the black seeds from the fruit as they open. No need to remove yellow aril or place panicles of fruit in water. Soak seed overnight and sow immediately.
    Juncus spp. Summer Seed are ripe when they fall out of the seed heads. Place seed heads in paper bags to allow seed to fall out. Do not cover seeds; keep moist.
    Kennedia rubicunda
    Dusky Coral Pea
    Summer Fruits are pods up to 10cm long and are mature when seeds rattle. As for Acacia
    Lepidozamia peroffskyana
    Shining Burrawang
    November Fruit is ripe when red. Remove the flesh from the fruit by soaking in sugar syrup. Crack hard seeds with a hammer to allow uptake of moisture. Sow seeds with 1/3 of seed above soil. Bottom heat assists germination.
    Leptospermum laevigatum
    Coastal Teatree
    Summer Seeds release when capsules mature. They change from green to grey brown. Place in a paper bag to extract seed. Sow thinly and do not cover seeds.
    Linospadix monostachya
    Walking Stick Palm
    February Fruit is ripe when red. Best results if fed to pet bird (pigeon) and seeds removed from droppings. Sow immediately.
    Litsea reticulata
    Bolly Gum
    Summer Fruit is ripe when black Sow fresh with flesh on.
    Livistona australis
    Cabbage-tree Palm
    Winter Fruit is ripe when dark brown/black No treatment; sow directly into pots.
    Lomandra spp. Summer Seed is ripe when capsules start to open revealing rice-like seeds. Remove seeds from seed heads by shaking and winnowing chaff from seeds. Soak seeds for three days changing water daily. Germination occurs in three weeks.
    Lophostemon spp. Most of the year As for Corymbia
    Melaleuca spp. All year As for Callistemon
    Melastoma affine
    Native Lasiandra
    Winter Grows easily from cuttings and seed
    Melia azedarach
    White Cedar
    Late winter / early spring Fruit is a brown drupe that starts to wrinkle when ripe. No treatment required. Do not keep too moist.
    Mischocarpus pyrifornis subsp pyriformis
    Yellow Pear-fruit
    Summer Fruit is ripe when yellow and starting to open Remove the black seeds with the red aril from the fruit as they open and sow immediately.
    Morinda jasminoides
    Sweet Morinda
    Summer Fruit is ripe when orange Pulp fruit to remove seed and sow.
    Myoporum boninense
    Coastal Boobyalla
    Spring and autumn Fruit ripe when dark red or purple Easiest from cuttings, but sowing and leaving in the open gets good results in several months.
    Myrsine howittiana
    Brown Muttonwood
    February Fruit are drupes that are soft and black when ripe. Remove flesh from seed and soak overnight for good results.
    Neolitsea dealbata
    White Bolly Gum
    Autumn Drupe is ripe when dark purple. Fruits will ripen on branches when placed in water. Remove flesh from seed and sow directly into pots.
    Omalanthus populifolius
    Bleeding Heart
    Summer Fruit is mature when they turn purple, they ripen differentially. Collected branches of mature fruit ripen when left in water.
    Pandanus tectorius
    Screw Pine
    April Collect seed fallen from tree for best results. Soak for one week, then sow. Germination in 5 months, or rescue seedlings.
    Pisonia umbrellifera
    Birdlime Tree
    Summer These are ripe when the capsule is turning black Use sand to separate these capsules and sow fresh
    Pittosporum multiflorum Spring Fruit is ripe when orange Pulp flesh and sow seed fresh
    Pittosporum revolutum Brisbane Laurel April Fruits are a capsule and are ripe when yellow and splitting open to reveal red sticky seeds. Wash sticky seeds in dishwashing liquid to remove. May take several washes, alternatively, place in a jar with clean river sand and agitate until sticky substance is removed
    Podocarpus elatus
    Plum Pine
    March / April Fruit is ripe when dark purple and soft. Remove the single black seed (about the size of a small marble) from top of fruit and sow. Good results with bottom heat.
    Pouteria Australis
    Black Apple
    Spring Fruit is ripe when dark purple and soft. Remove seed from fruit, soak overnight and sow immediately with bottom heat for good results
    Psychotria loniceroides
    Hairy Psychotria
    April
    Rhodamnia rubescens
    Brush Turpentine
    December / January Fruits are berries that turn red/black when ripe. Pulp fruit and sow sparsely. Germinates in one month with bottom heat.
    Rhodomytrus psidioides
    Native Guava
    April Fruit is a berry that is soft and light green when ripe Pulp the fruit and sow. Germinates in one month with bottom heat.
    Senna acclinis
    Brush Senna
    Summer As for Acacia
    Solanum aviculare
    Kangaroo Apple
    Summer Fruit is a large fleshy berry which is ripe when soft and orange/red. Pulp and remove flesh from seed. Soak overnight and sow.
    Sophora tomentosa
    Necklace Pod
    Most of the year As per Acacia. Repeated treatments may be required for all seeds to swell. Pre scarification by rubbing seeds between coarse sandpaper will help. Germinates readily with bottom heat.
    Syncarpia glomulifera
    Turpentine
    December As per Corymbia
    Synoum glandulosum
    False Rosewood
    May Fruit is ripe when capsules split open to reveal brown seed with red flesh. Remove red fruit and sow directly into pots
    Syzygium spp. Autumn Fruit is ripe when soft. Sow with flesh on after soaking overnight.
    Toona ciliata
    Red Cedar
    Summer The dry capsule is ripe when turning brown Collect capsule and place in brown paper bag to collect seed. Sow fresh
    Trema tomentosa
    Poison Peach
    Summer/Autumn The seed can be collected when black Sow seed fresh and leave in the open to geminate, takes about 5 months
    Tristaniopsis laurina
    Water Gum
    Autumn The seed can be collected when the capsule starts to open. Soak papery seeds until waterlogged then sow, good germination in a couple of weeks
    Vigna marina
    Dune Bean
    Winter Seed ripe when capsule is brown. Remove seeds and use hot water treatment.
    Viola hederacea
    Ivy Leafed Violet
    Anytime of year Cut off runners with roots and pot
    Waterhousea floribunda
    Weeping Lilly Pilly
    Collect seedlings
    Wilkiea huegeliana
    Veiny Wilkiea
    Winter Fruit black when ripe Sow when fresh do not over water.
    Xerochrysum bracteatum
    Golden Everlasting
    November/December Seeds ripe when flower centre is fluffy and easily comes away in your hand as you rub your fingers across the flower Sow on top of potting mix, best results leaving in sunlight.

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